Effect of Social Suport and Social Interaction on Anxiety Among Pregnant Women
Background: There is growing evidence that the antenatal period is a time of increased liability to mental disorders. The most common psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy and the postpartum period are depressive and anxiety disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of social support and social interaction on anxiety among pregnant women.
Subjects and Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in community health centers in Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan, from November to December 2018. A sample of 200 pregnant women was selected by simple random sampling. The dependent variable was anxiety. The independent variables were education, parity, stress, family income, family support, social interaction, and counseling. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by multiple linear regression.
Results: Anxiety among pregnant women increased with stress (b= 0.33; 95% CI= 0.16 to 0.49; p= 0.001). It was decreased by high education (b= - 2.37; 95% CI= -3.93 to -0.81; p= 0.003), high income (b= -4.69; 95% CI= -7.81 to -1.57; p= 0.003), parity (b= 0.38; 95% CI= -2.98 to -0.26; p= 0.001), strong family support (b= -0.38; 95% CI= 0.52 to 0.24; p= 0.001), social interaction (b= -0.27; 95% CI= -0.42 to -0.12; p= 0.001), and conselling (b= -0.91; 95% CI= - 1.77 to -0.05; p= 0.004).
Conclusion: Anxiety among pregnant women increases with stress. It is decreased by high education, high income, parity, strong family support, social interaction, and counseling.
Keywords: anxiety, stress, social interaction, pregnant women
Bgahhdari N, Sahebzad ES, Kheirkhah M (2014). The effect of pregnancy adaptation training package on the anxiety of pregnant women with a prior history of fetal or neonatal death. J Midwifery Reprod Health. 2015; 3(2):355-360
Chan CY, Lee AM, Lam SK, Lee CP, Leung KY, Koh YW, Tang K (2013). Antenatal anxiety in the first trimester: Risk factors and effects on anxiety and depression in the third trimester and. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 3: 301
Daglar G, Nur N (2014). The relationship between anxiety and depression levels and stress coping strategies of the pregnant women. Cumhuriyet Medicine Journal 36:429-441
Erkaya E, Karabulutlu O, Calik KY (2017) Defining Childbirth Fear And Anxiety Levels In Pregnant Women: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 237.
Gao LL, Liu X J, Fu, BL, Xie W (2015). Predictors of childbirth fear among pregnant Chinese women: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Midwifery, 31, 865-870. Doi: org/10. 1016/j.midw.201505.003
Health Office Kutai Kartanegara District (2016). Profil Kesehatan Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara. Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara
(2017). Profil Kesehatan Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara. Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara
Health Office East Kalimatan Province (2017). Profil Kesehatan Provinsi Kalimantan Timur. Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Kalimantan Timur
Halgin RP, Whitebourne SK (2010). Psikologi abnormal. Salemba Humanika: Jakarta.
Jonsdottir SS, Thome M, Steingrimsdottir T, Lydsdottir LB, Sigurdsson JF, Olafsdottir H, Swahnberg K (2016). Partner Relationship, Social Support and Perinatal Distress Among Pregnant Icelandic Women. Doi: org/10.1016/j.wombi.2016.08.0051871-5192/
Ministry of Health Republik Indonesia (2013). Riset Kesehatan Dasar. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan RI
_____ (2017). PMK RI Nomor 39 tahun 2016 tentang pedoman penyelenggaraan program Indonesia Sehat dengan pendekatan keluarga Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI.
_____ (2016). Profil Kesehatan Indonesia. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI
Mandagi DVV, Pali C, Sinolungan JSV (2013). Perbedaan Tingkat Kecemasan Pada Primigravida dan Multigravida di RSIA Kasih Ibu Manado. Jurnal e-Biomedik (eBM). 1 (1): 197-201.
Murti B (2018). Prinsip dan Metode Riset Epidemiologi. Edisi II.Cetakan I. Program Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Surakarta
Nasreen HE, Kabir ZN, Forsell Y, Edhborg M (2011). Prevalence and associated factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: A population-based study in rural Bangladesh. BMC Women
Nekoee T, Zarei M (2015). Evaluation of the Anxiety status of pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy and fear of childbirth and related factors. British Journal of Medicine & Medical Study. 9(12): 1-8.
Nisa SMK, Murti B, Qadrijati I (2018). Path analysis on the psychosocial factors affecting anxiety and delivery pain.
Rayment JH (2017). A multisite audit to assess how women with complex social factors access and engage with maternity services, Midwifery. Doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2017.06.004
Walyani ES (2017). Asuhan kebidanan pada kehamilan. Yogyakarta: PT. Pustaka Baru.
Waqas A, Raza N, Lodhi HW, Muhammad Z, Jamal M, Rehman A (2015). Psychosocial factors of antenatal anxiety and depression in Pakistan: Is social support a mediator? PLoS ONE, 10(1), 1
WHO (2015).World Report on Ageing and Health. Geneva: WHO.